Keywords: horse, Ukrainian Riding Horse breed, breeding, selection parameters, methods of selection, genealogical structure
The Ukrainian Riding Horse breed is the leading breed of horses in Ukraine in the direction of the sport of working capacity. A long period of breeding improvement requires the establishment of breeding parameters that will continue the breeding process, taking into account the modern needs of classical equestrian sports.
Studies were conducted on the entire livestock of the breed, which is kept by breeding subjects and private owners. Quantitative indicators of the breed are established, which are: the total number of 672 heads, including breeding mares of reproductive age – 266 heads.
The established parameters of breeding, according to which it is necessary to conduct further improvement of the Ukrainian Riding Horse breed: purpose-breeding horses mainly for purebred breeding, horses with universal sport activity; breeding methods-purebred by lines, crossing at the level of blood flow with the original and other sports breeds, conditional blood capacity for the original breeds – ¾, for others – ½; breeding core should be at least 800 purebred mares; the number of genealogical lines should remain at the current level – 7 or increase; number of breeding stallions in lines-not less than 5, mares – 30 heads; measurement indicators (2 – year-old age: 160-158-178-20 cm (Stallions), 157-155-177-20 cm (mares); 3-year-old age: 163-162-186-21 (Stallions), 161-160-184-20.5 cm (mares); 4 – year – old age and older: 165-165-192-21 cm (stallions), 163-163-190-20.5 cm (mares); the class of young animals at the first bonus should be: elite – 85%, 1 class – 15 % (stallions); Elite – 90%, 1 class – 10 % (mares); the average score for sports performance of 2-year-old young animals should not be lower than: 8 points (Stallions), 7 points (mares); the proportion of horses that have passed factory and Inter – factory tests of sports qualities: stud farms – 80 %; breeding loudspeakers – 70 %; height of overcoming obstacles when testing jumping qualities in freedom (without a rider): at the age of 2 years – 130 cm; at the age of 3 years – 140 cm; at the age of 4 years and older –150 cm.
The given breeding parameters are justified by the results of the selection assessment of the entire recorded livestock of the Ukrainian Riding Horse breed.
The genealogical structure of the breed consists of 8 lines, mainly – Hobot (24.4 %) and Bespechny (20.5 %). Highly rated for its typicality and exterior stallions line Huguenot, Bespechny and Khrustal, in terms of measurements of the body – the stallions of lines Vodopad and of Raufbold. The greatest number of mares refers to the lines Raufbold (25.1 %) and Factotum (22.0 %).
The breed was 23 uterine families. The largest number of representatives in uterine families Tema, Infra II, Bilinka, Eureka, Asaliya. The top number of offspring of the highest sports class estimated breeding family of Arizona, Cathedra, Tema, Bilinka and Tina.
Evaluation of models the selection of which received horses showed that most stallions – Champions of competitions at the national level and winners of international competitions obtained in the model selection with inbreeding on one ancestor: Bespechny III-III; VI, IV-IV; V, IV-II; V, IV-IV; Huguenot V-IV; Plastic V-III; Raufbold III-III.
The analysis of pedigrees of horses – winners and prize-winners in competitions of the international and national level established that the majority of horses from selection were purebred and came from classical lines of the Ukrainian Riding Horse breed (52.0 %). Among the crossbred descendants of the first generation the highest number of winners of competitions at the national level obtained from crosses with Trakenen breed (61.2 %), winners of international competitions – from stallions of the Thoroughbred riding breed (14.7%).
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