Keywords: horses, Ukrainian Warmblood horse, mare families, generation, genealogical complex, selection sign.
The aim of the research was to study the genealogical structure of the Ukrainian Warmblood horse breed on the mare families that form the population, and to evaluate them on the basis of a set of breeding characteristics. Studied the pedigree of the mares of the subjects of breeding breeding horses of the Ukrainian Warmblood breed (n=272).
In structure of Ukrainian riding breed dedicated mares families, the role of the mares of different breeds ancestors in the matrilineal structure of modern breeding nucleus of the breed. The evolution of the uterine nucleus formation of the Ukrainian Warmblood breed is analyzed. Structural units of the mare nucleus were evaluated by a complex of breeding characteristics.
It is proved that the creation of the Ukrainian Warmblood breed was significantly influenced by the use of Hungarian horses at the early stage of the formation of the producing composition. A significant number of mare families created on the basis of Hungarian breeds, which belonged to the mother of the ancestors and the ancestors themselves. The analysis of the origin of mares-ancestors of modern mare families showed that their pedigrees are built mainly on Trakenen-Hungarian, Thoroughbred-Hungarian and Thoroughbred-Trakenen-Hungarian breed complexes.
At the time of testing of the Ukrainian Warmblood breed 16 mare families were registered, which included from 4 to 21 mares. The most numerous were the families of Nona, 541 Khokhlatka (10.4 % each), 496 Flangova (9.5 %) and Farsa (9.0 %). The best set of features was evaluated families: 86 Infra I, 266 of Arizona, 317 Bylina, 89 Kanitel, 104 Maritza, Nona, 541 Khokhlatka, Farsa, 496 Flangova, Favoritka.
It is established that the modern structure of the Ukrainian Warmblood breed includes 23 mare families, the number of mares in which is from three or more heads. The most numerically mare families by the number of successor: 159 Tema (13.2 %) and 86 Infra I (12.5 %). In addition, the mare part of the horse plants are also used 29 mares originating from the mare families of other breeds (Thoroughbred, Westphalian, Hanoverian, Trakenen, Orlov’s Trotter). Another 20 mares belong to 13 small mare families, including 1-2 mares.
The highest rating on the number of descendants – winners and prize-winners in classical equestrian sports of international and national levels was received by uterine families: 266 Arizona, 91 Kafedra, 159 Tema, 318 Bylinka and 160 Tina (share of winners and prize-winners of international and national competitions 9,2 %, 8,6 %, 6,6 %, 5,9 % and 5.9 % respectively).
Given the limitations of the gene pool of the Ukrainian Warmblood breed, mare families and nests are promising structural units that are able to reproduce horses with a valuable genotype in proven genealogical combinations. Distribution of representatives of valuable mare families in various subjects of breeding contributes to their preservation and testing in the selection of different genealogical lines.
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