Keywords: technology of keeping bees, activity of hygienic behavior, diseases, grooming
The study examined the technology of keeping bees in order to increase the activity of hygienic behavior as a factor of natural resistance. The aim of the work was to study the activity of hygienic behavior by determining differences in bees of different breeds, zoned on the territory of Ukraine, in different families of the same breed in different apiaries, healthy and with signs of infectious diseases, as well as studying the specificity of the behavior of adult bees in cleaning the body from parasites (mites Varroa) and recognition and removal of infectioned pupae from brood cells. There was presented the correlation of the activity of hygienic behavior on the breed characteristics and strength of the bee colony. It was determined that the Ukrainian steppe breed of bees had a demonstrative activity of hygienic behavior and was more resistant to infection by ectoparasites and pathogens compared to the Carpathian breed. The difference in the duration of complete cleaning of the cells in bee colonies of the Ukrainian steppe and Carpathian breeds was 4±1 hours on average. There was explored the study of the hygienic behavior of honey bees before the recognition and removal of infectioned pupae from the sealed working brood within the same breed. Bee activity lasted for 6 days, the intensity was maximum in the first three days: on average, 64,5% of damaged pupae were removed. However, the reactions of bees were nonspecific in relation to the parasite. After 6 days no significant differences were found between mechanically damaged cells (47,7%) and cells infectioned by the Varroa mite (48.3%).
The activity of bees was manifested during six days, the intensity of grooming and hygienic behavior was maximum during the first three days: on average, 77,4% of Varroa females were thrown from the bees’ bodies and 64.5% of damaged pupae were removed from the cells. However, the reactions of the bees were not specific to the parasite, the corresponding cleaning movements were performed by the bees in the control experiments as well.
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