Keywords: honey bees, fatty acids, phospholipids, feed supplement, queen bees reproductive ability, bees (workers) honey productivity
The research aims to establish a connection between the content of phospholipids, their fatty acid composition and the sorption capacity of honey bee head tissues and their reproductive capacity and productivity depending on the amount of flaxseed oil in the feed additive.
It was found that the addition of flaxseed oil in the amount of 10 and 20 g into the feed additive which consists of low-fat soy flour and sugar syrup, demonstrates the dose-dependent increase in the content of saturated, monounsaturated and especially polyunsaturated fatty acids both in fatty acids of total lipids and non-esterified fatty acids. Feeding honey bees with a feed additive enriched with flax oil leads to a dose-dependent increase in the concentration of phospholipids in the tissues of the head of honey bees. At the same time, the relative content of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 family increases in the phospholipids of bee tissues of the 1st and 2nd experimental groups, but the content of monounsaturated fatty acids of the ω-9 family decreases. In this case, the ratio of the relative content of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 family to the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-6 family in the phospholipids of the head tissues of honey bees of the 1st and 2nd experimental groups grows significantly. The increase in the concentration of phospholipids and the relative content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the ω-3 family leads to a dose-dependent increase in the sorption capacity of the head tissues of honey bees of the 1st and 2nd experimental groups. At the same time, the tissue of the honey bee head in the 1st and mainly the 2nd experimental groups undergo the increase in the content of Nickel, Plumbum and Cadmium. In addition, the content of Copper and Chromium rises in the tissues of the head of honey bees of the 2nd experimental group. Changes in the content of phospholipids, their fatty acid composition and sorption capacity of the tissues of the head of honey bees of the 1st and especially 2nd experimental groups are accompanied by changes in the reproductive capacity of queens and honey productivity of worker bees. Specifically, the egg laying of queens in the 2nd and, to a greater extent, 1st experimental groups increase by 6.4% and 15.4%, respectively, and honey productivity of worker bees increases by 10.7% and 17.5%, respectively.
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