Keywords: polymorphism, population, cows, allele, genotype, marker, productivity
The productivity parameters of cows of the Ukrainian Black-and-White and Red-and-White dairy breeds with different genotypes by the tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) loci were studied. The gene variants were evaluated using PCR-RFLP methods for MYF5 and SSCP for TNF-α. Value of the milk yield average for 305 days of lactation, milk fat content and protein content in milk were used as experimental productivity indicators. The analysis of productive qualities was carried out by comparing the parameters for the first three lactations for each group of animals. According to the results of the research, it was found that for the Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed, by the parameter of milk yield for 305 days of lactation, the dominant values of the indicator are characterized by individuals with a heterozygous genotype by MYF5. Differences in the values of this index between individuals with different genotypes (TaqI+/TaqI- and TaqI-/TaqI-) are 16.8% for the first lactation and 14.1% for the second. There were no significant differences in productivity parameters between individuals with different genotypes for Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed cattle. The results of the studies showed the absence of significant differences for each productivity parameter for individuals with different genotypes (AC, AD and AF) by TNF-α locus in both experimental cattle breeds. Features of genotype frequency distribution in the experimental cattle groups make it impossible to analyze the productive parameters of individuals with all possible genotype variants by TNF-α locus due to the insufficient number of animals from different groups in the sample. There were no significant differences in the parameters of fat and protein milk content for animals of both experimental cattle breeds.
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