Keywords: dairy cows, adaptation, loose housing, milking, behavior, milking machine «Yalinka»
The study aimed to examine the characteristics of the main behavioral reactions of first-borns and cows of II and III lactations during weaning with changes in housing and milking conditions and productivity of the entire farm during the adaptation period (30 days). The research was conducted at the BNAU Scientific Research Center (Bila Tserkva district, Kyiv region) on cows of the Ukrainian Black-Spotted dairy breed. The number of cows of the second lactation and older was kept loosely in premises (L×W×H 78×21×5 m) for 200 heads, and heifers in winter – in the premises for loose housing and in summer on playgrounds. A group of cows of the second lactation and older before milking changed the conditions on a parallel-pass type installation. After calving, the group of firstborns was milked by mobile milking equipment with a bucket. Animals of both groups 10 days after calving were transferred to another reconstructed for loose-box maintenance of the capital room for 150 heads (78×21×5 m) with milking in the milking parlor at the installation “Herringbone” 2×6. It was found that the group of first-borns had better adaptive traits compared to the group of cows of II and III lactations, which is confirmed by the shorter time to achieve the ratio of acts of daily behavior, which is due to the schedule of “ideal day”. The values of the comfort index in first-borns corresponded to the recommended norms starting from 11-15 days (III period), and the index of stall use – starting from 6-10 days (II period). In the group of cows of II and III lactations, the values of these indices corresponded to the norm from 16-20 days (IV period) and 11-15 days (III period), respectively. The firstborns showed higher adaptive traits in terms of feed intake duration than cows of II and III lactations (6-10 days). The duration of feed intake in groups of cows of II and III lactations corresponded to the recommended values starting from the III period (11-15 days). Cows II and older during lactation during the adaptation period prevailed in the daily productivity of first-borns – by 1.48-1.90 kg. At the same time, the group of first-borns during the 30-day adaptation period increased productivity – by 1.07 kg, and the group of cows II and older lactations – by 0.73 kg.
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