Keywords: polymorphism, population, allele, genotype, marker, variability
Investigations of the genetic structure features of the populations of Ukrainian Black-and-White and Red-and-White dairy breeds by polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR) and myogenic factor 5 (MYF5) genes were carried out. AluI-polymorphism in the promoter fragment of the GHR gene and TaqI-polymorphism in the second intron of the MYF5 gene was detected using polymerase chain reaction and restriction analysis (PCR-RFLP). According to the research results, it was shown that the growth hormone receptor and myogenic factor 5 genes in the populations of Ukrainian Black-and-White and Red-and-White dairy breeds are polymorphic. In the population of the Ukrainian Black-and-White dairy breed at the GHR locus, the frequency of the AluI+ allele was 0.61; allele AluI- – 0.39; at the MYF5 locus, the TaqI+ allele frequency was 0.65; allele Taq- – 0.35, respectively. In the population of the Ukrainian Red-and-White dairy breed at the GHR locus, the frequency of the AluI+ allele was 0.54; allele AluI- – 0.46; at the MYF5 locus, the TaqI+ allele frequency was 0.64; allele Taq- – 0.36, respectively. Both experimental populations for GHR and MYF5 loci are in a genetic equilibrium state according to Hardy-Weinberg, which indicates the absence of microevolutionary changes in the process of their reproduction. There were no significant fluctuations in the genetic structure according to the revealed features of the genotype and allele frequencies distribution. The breeding work that is carried out on both populations does not affect marker alleles (which are described in the work), which is reflected in the features of the genetic-population structure of the experimental groups and their equilibrium state. The features of the distribution of individuals with different genotypes by GHR and MYF5 loci in the populations of both breeds make it possible to carry out further studies to determine the relationship between the identified allelic variants of polymorphic loci with parameters of animal productivity.
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