Method for converting blood quantitative indicators into qualitative ones

DOI: 10.32900/2312-8402-2022-127-171-176

Rudenko Ye.,
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine. Sci., Professor, Corresponding Member of NAAS,,
Vasilevsky M.,
Candidate of Biological Sci., Senior Researcher,,
Yeletskaya T.,
Candidate of Biological Sci., Senior Researcher,,
Sediuk I.,
Candidate of Agricultural Sciences,,
Institute of Animal Science NAAS of Ukraine

Keywords: blood biochemical parameters, metabolic status of the animal, qualimetric assessment


A method for calculating a complex integral indicator of the metabolic state of an animal’s body based on a biochemical blood test is proposed. The essence of the method lies in the fact that within the reference zone of distribution of each biochemical indicator included in the processing, its actual value turns into an index of relative normality equal to 100 % if the result of the analysis coincides with the middle of the reference zone and equal to 0 % if it coincides with the extreme values. When the indicator goes beyond the reference range, the relative normality index takes negative values. The conversion of the actual value (quality) was carried out taking into account linear proportionality. Integration was performed by calculating the arithmetic mean for all available blood biochemical parameters. As a result of such processing of the biochemical analysis of blood parameters, an integral parameter is obtained that characterizes the metabolic status of the animal’s body as a percentage of the conditional norm. In this case, an important characteristic of the state of the body is the dispersion of the obtained value of “normality”. This method processed the results of blood tests of lactating cows under the influence of the feeding factor. When applying the dispersion statistical method of analysis, no influence of the feed factor on the status of the biochemical profile of varnishing cows was revealed. Dispersion analysis of converted blood biochemical parameters to units of conditional normality established the difference between the control group of animals and the experimental group at the level of a trend. The variance value of the normality coefficient decreased by the end of the second period in the control group by 42.95 %, and in the experimental group by 57.89 % compared with the first period. The proposed method of qualimetric transformation of blood biochemical parameters can be used for rapid assessment of the current biochemical status of lactating cows, provided that the influence of one or another feeding factor is adequately analyzed.


  1. Ježek, J, Cincović, M. R., Nemec, M., Belić, B., Djoković, R., Klinkon, M., & Starič, J. P. (2017). Beta-hydroxybutyrate in milk as screening test for subclinical ketosis in dairy cows. J. Vet Sci. 20(3), 507-512. doi: 10.1515/pjvs-2017-0061.
  2.  Jagos, P.,  Bouda J.,  Dvorák V.,  & Ondrová J. (1981).Comparison of biochemical parameters in the blood of healthy and diseased calves in a large barn. Vet. Med. (Praha). 26(10). Р. 573-580.
  3. Ermishin, A. S., & Timakov, A. V. (2015.) Biohimicheskie pokazateli adaptacii korov raznyh porod v uslovijah jaroslavskoj oblasti [Biochemical indicators of adaptation of cows of different breeds in the conditions of the Yaroslavl region] Zootehnija i veterinarija4(32), 29-39 [in Russian].
  4. Milaeva, I. V., Voronina, O. A., & Zajcev, & S. Ju. (2017). Osobennosti metabolizma laktirujushhih korov [Features of the metabolism of lactating cows] RJOAS: Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 2(62), 275-281. doi: [in Russian].
  5. Lavery, A.,&  Ferris, C. P.(2021). Proxy Measures and Novel Strategies for Estimating Nitrogen Utilisation Efficiency in Dairy Cattle. Animals (Basel). 11(2). 343. doi: 10.3390/ani11020343.
  6. Barros, T., Reed, K. F., Olmos Colmenero, J. J., & Wattiaux, M. A. (2019). Short communication: Milk urea nitrogen as a predictor of urinary nitrogen and urea nitrogen excretions of late-lactation dairy cows fed nitrogen-limiting diets. J. Dairy Sci., 102(2), 1601-1607. doi: 10.3168/jds.2018-14551
  7. Brscic, M., Cozzi, G., Lora, I., Stefani, A. L., Contiero, B., Ravarotto, L., & Gottardo, F. (2015).Short communication: Reference limits for blood analytes in Holstein late-pregnant heifers and dry cows: Effects of parity, days relative to calving, and season. J. Dairy Sci., 98(11), 7886-7892.  doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-9345
  8. Cozzi, G., Ravarotto, L., Gottardo, F., Stefani, A. L., Contiero, B., Moro, L., Brscic, M., & Dalvit. P. (2011). Short communication: Reference values for blood parameters in Holstein dairy cows: Effects of parity, stage of lactation, and season of production. J. Dairy Sci.,94(8), P.3895–3901. doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-3687.
  9. Mohri, M., Sharifi, K., & Eidi, S. (2007). Hematology and serum biochemistry of Holstein dairy calves: age related changes and comparison with blood composition in adults. Res Vet Sci., 83(1), 30-39. doi: 10.1016/j.rvsc.2006.10.017
  10. Quiroz-Rocha, G. F., LeBlanc, S. J., Duffield, T. F., Wood, D., Leslie K. E., & Jacobs, R. M. (2009). Reference limits for biochemical and hematological analytes of dairy cows one week before and one week after parturition. Can. Vet. J., 50(4), 383-388.