DOI: 10.32900/2312-8402-2023-130-112-127

Kurhaluk Natalia,
Doctor of Biological Sciences,,
Tkaczenko Halina,
Doctor of Biological Sciences,,
Institute of Biology, Pomeranian University in Słupsk, Poland,
Tkachova Iryna,
Doctor of Agrarian Sciences, Senior Researcher,,
Livestock farming institute of NAAS of Ukraine,
Lukash Oleksandr,
Doctor of Biological Sciences,,
Department of Ecology and Nature Protection, T.G. Shevchenko,
National University “Chernihiv Collegium”, Chernihiv, Ukraine

Keywords: 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total antioxidant capacity, plasma, exercise, seasonal alterations, photoperiods, Shetland ponies, mares and stallions

This study focuses on the photoperiod-induced variability in the levels of biomarkers of lipid peroxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in the blood of Shetland pony mares and stallions before and after exercise. We have analyzed the effect of photoperiods and exercise on the levels of TBARS and TAC in the blood of Shetland pony mares and stallions involved in recreational horseback riding in the central Pomeranian region (Pomeranian Voivodeship, northern part of Poland). Twenty-one healthy adult Shetland ponies (11 mares and 10 stallions) aged 6.5 ± 1.4 years old were used in this study. All horses participated in recreational horseback riding. Training started at 10:00 AM, lasted 1 hour, and consisted of a ride of cross country by walking (5 min), trotting (15 min), walking (10 min), trotting (10 min), walking (5 min), galloping (5 min), and walking (10 min). Blood was drawn from the jugular veins of the animals in the morning, 90 minutes after feeding, while the horses were in the stables (between 8:30 and 10 AM), and immediately after the exercise test (between 11 AM and 12 AM). Blood samples were taken once per season for one year: summer and winter. The level of lipid peroxidation was determined by quantifying the concentration of 2-thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) for determining the malonic dialdehyde (MDA) concentration. The TAC level in samples was estimated by measuring the TBARS level after Tween 80 oxidation. In the stallions and mares before exercise (at rest) in the summer photoperiod, we obtained minimum TBARS values, while maximum levels were determined in the winter photoperiod. In our study, the TAC level illustrated the baseline levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, which were different in the mares than in the stallions (statistically significant in the winter photoperiod) both before and after exercise (winter photoperiod). The results of the current study demonstrated that changes in the lipid peroxidation and the total antioxidant capacity in the blood of Shetland ponies are photoperiod-, sex-, and exercise-dependent. The maximum statistically significant values for the effect of the photoperiod-exercise combination defined as the F values were observed. The multivariate analysis of the influence of the three parameters: photoperiods, sex, and exercise on the lipid peroxidation and the total antioxidant capacity in the blood of the ponies indicated the leading role mainly of the photoperiod factor, and next the exercise and sex factors.


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