Keywords: heifers, paratypic parameters, live weight, average daily gain, safety, multicriteria analysis, regression model
The article examines the effectiveness of heifers under the influence of paratypic parameters. Parameters of efficiency of heifers at the “Gontarivka” breeding facility were 1.2153 times worse than the indicators at “Profintern” breeding facility in 2018; for 2019 – 1.3449 times and for 2020 – 1.2372 times.
Multicriteria analysis takes into account such parameters as the age of the first insemination and the number of heads in the insemination groups. It was found a special advantage of soybean meal usage according to the considered criteria when it was 0.0119 and for sunflower meal – 2.3697 times less. The probable influence of the year on the growing intensity of young stock (p<0.001) was established. Thus, the strength of the influence of this parameter in the breeding facility “Gontarivka” was 0.8%, in “Kutuzivka” breeding facility it was 4.1% and in “Stepne” breeding facility it was 1.8%. The growth rate of heifers during the study period in all farms changed slightly. The increase in the average daily weight gain between 2018 and 2021 in the “Gontarivka” breeding facility was 124 g, in the “Kutuzivka” – 164 g and in the “Stepne” – 27 g (p <0.001). The same patterns in changes in average daily increments over the years in all farms indicate their dependence on climatic conditions of the season. The dynamics of changes in the growth of heifers depending on their age was also determined, the strength of which was 5.26% in “Gontarivka”, 7.43% in “Kutuzivka” and 7.43% in “Stepne” (p <0.001).
The average daily weight gain also depended on the average monthly air temperature. The strength of the impact of this factor was 17.7% in “Gontarivka”, 13.6% in “Kutuzivka” and 9.6% in “Stepne” (p <0.001). Analysis of the dynamics of changes in average daily weight gain for the whole period showed that in the summer with increasing air temperature decreased. Conversely, in winter, when keeping heifers indoors, the average daily gain increased. The correlation coefficient between the growth of heifers and the average monthly temperature in “Gontarivka” was negative (r = -0.159, p <0.001), and with the age of animals – positive (r = +0.039, p <0.01). For “Kutuzivka”, the values of the coefficients in the direction of communication did not differ and amounted to -0.159 (p <0.001) and +0.190 (p <0.001), respectively. According to the data of animal development of the State Enterprise “Stepne” positive correlations of growth with the age of heifers (r = +0.187, p <0.001) and with the average monthly air temperature (r = +0.151, p <0.01). Based on the results of calculations, models for forecasting average daily increments for experimental farms have been developed.
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