Keywords: poultry keeping, turkeys, litter, regeneration, multiple usage
In the context of a constantly growing shortage of bedding materials, the practice of their repeated use after regeneration is becoming more widespread. However, the known methods of litter regeneration, such as biothermal composting in piles without covering or with covering the piles, have certain disadvantages and require improvement in the direction of intensifying biothermal processes and increasing the level of disinfection. Also, these methods relate mainly to the bedding of broiler chickens. The main kinetic regularities of the processes of regeneration of the used litter of other bird species have been insufficiently studied. Considering the above, the goal of our research was to develop an improved method for regenerating used turkey litter and to study its effect in comparison with known methods on the kinetics of the biothermal treatment process, chemical composition and microbial contamination of the litter. An improved method of regeneration was developed, which involved adding a special microbiological preparation to the bedding and irradiating the surface of the pile during composting with ultraviolet radiation (UVR). For comparison, the known methods of litter regeneration were used: 1K – by composting in a pile; 2K – the same and, in addition, covered the litter during composting with foil. As shown by the research results, the addition of a microbiological preparation and covering the shoulder with a film contributed to an increase in the temperature of the litter during the biothermal treatment by 1.2 – 9.4 °C (p <0.05). The addition of a microbiological preparation and irradiation of the surface of the pile with UV radiation made it possible to reduce the emission of ammonia from the litter during its regeneration by 4 – 25 mg/m2 per hour. compared with the first control option (P <0.01), while when the collar was covered with a film, it increased. The highest nitrogen content after biothermal treatment was noted in the litter, the regeneration of which was carried out in accordance with the improved method, and the lowest in the variant where the pile was covered with a film. After biothermal treatment, microbial contamination of the litter with enterobacteria inside the piles decreased in all variants: in the first control by 90 %, when the pile was covered with a film by 93 %, with the addition of a microbiological preparation and irradiation of the pile with ultraviolet radiation (improved method) by 95 %. Covering with a film, and especially irradiation of the pile with ultraviolet radiation, made it possible to significantly reduce microbial contamination of the litter and on the surface of the piles. Microbial contamination of the litter by fungal microorganisms after regeneration decreased 2.5 times – on the surface of the piles, and 5 times – inside.
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