Keywords: Ukrainian White-Headed, karyotype, aneuploidy, chromosomal breaks, micronucleus test
The White-Headed Ukrainian breed of cattle belongs to breeds of a dairy direction of productivity and belongs to small disappearing breeds. According to calculations, in accordance with the FAO recommendations, the White-Headed Ukrainian breed of cattle is at risk. The aim of the work was to establish the karyotype variability of White-Headed Ukrainian cows, whose animals belong to closed gene pool herds. Cytogenetic monitoring showed that the quantitative chromosome abnormalities, in particular aneuploidy, in White-Headed Ukrainian cows of two groups according to the purpose of the cow (selection nucleus and production group) did not exceed the spontaneous level of this variability (1.5-8.3%) and was 6.0% and 7.0% respectively.
A multiple increase in the number of chromosomes (polyploidy) was not detected. The average value of metaphase plates with asynchronous differences in the centromeric regions of chromosomes was 1.0% and corresponded to the level of this variability characteristic of the species Bos taurus. The frequency of structural chromosome abnormalities (chromosomal breaks) in animals of the two groups was 2.3% and 2.0%, respectively, which corresponds to the norm characteristic of cattle with spontaneous mutagenesis. The results of the micronucleus test showed that the proportion of lymphocytes with micronuclei in animals of the two groups was in the range of 4.8 – 5.0%, dinuclear lymphocytes 5.6-6.4 %, and the proportion of dividing cells (mitotic index) was 2.8-3.8 %. The frequency of cells with aneuploidy in cows of the Ukrainian Black-Spotted dairy breed of this farm was established higher than the spontaneous level. The difference between the mean values on this basis in cows of White-Headed Ukrainian and Ukrainian Black-Spotted dairy breeds was statistically significant at P> 0.99. In cows of the Ukrainian Black-Spotted dairy breed under conditions of intensive use, an increase in the frequency of metaphases with aneuploidy was observed, which was not manifested in cows of the White-Headed Ukrainian breed.
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