Keywords: milk quality, mastitis, bacteria, monocultures, microflora, microorganisms
The social significance of mastitis is manifested in the fact that the causative agents of mastitis in cows can cause disease in humans. Since the leading role in mastitis pathology belongs to streptococci and staphylococci, it is they who most often enter the milk. The purpose of the research was to establish the frequency of occurrence of subclinical mastitis in cows, its effect on the physicochemical parameters of milk with the determination of the species composition of the microflora of milk in cows with subclinical mastitis with the development of a method for its diagnosis in the early stages of the development of inflammation of the mammary gland. The work is based on the results of analytical analysis of the literature, a comprehensive clinical, instrumental and laboratory study of lactating cows with mastitis. Studies have established that the disease of the udder in cows with mastitis at the beginning of lactation has a certain seasonal nature and its main peaks occur in March-May and September-November. During these months, from 2.5 to 4.1 % of cows with mastitis from the total number of the farm were identified. It has been established that with mastitis there is a change in the physicochemical parameters of milk: an increase in the number of somatic cells up to >1500 thousand/cm3; an increase in the pH of the milk to 7.3, which is associated with the breakdown of milk proteins to ammonia, and an increase in the electrical conductivity of milk to 7.54 mS/sm, due to the entry of sodium and chlorine ions into milk from the blood. The task in developing a method for diagnosing mastitis in cows was to diagnose the disease at the early stages of the development of inflammation of the mammary gland and facilitate complex studies. This method consists in studying the composition of a biological fluid, which is applied to a glass slide in the form of a drop of milk from the examined quarter of the udder, dried to obtain a solid medium structure, and examined under a light microscope.
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