Keywords: temperature, negative impact, environment, adaptation, comfortable conditions, bulls, cows, meat and milk production
The article highlights the effects of heat stress and high environment temperature to the dairy and meat productivity of cattle of various breeds.
Heat stress in cattle, arising from a combination of environmenttemperature and humidityconditions, creates a situation that does not allow them to give offheat. At the same time, it has been established that with the negative impact of high ambient temperature, a protective reaction of the body is activated, which is expressed in a decrease of the temperature of certain parts of the body, skin, mucous membranes and horny tissues.
The accumulation of heat in the body of animals occurs when their body temperature increases, thereby indicating that the animal already feels a certain degree of heat stress, which is reflected in a decrease of cattleproductivity, their physical activity, lack of appetite, a slight eating of food, etc.
Interesting materials were obtained by observing changes in the milk productivity of Black-and-White cows and their temperature balance in the summer, when not only the ambient temperature changed, but also a powerful feed factor – a change in diet composition.
It is noted that in the first half of lactation the calf birth factor has the greatest impact on milk production when all body functions are directed to milk production. The impact of any other positive and negative factors is reduced to a minimum, even a change in the composition of the diet in the summer. At the same time, in the second half of lactation, when the intensity of milk formation decreases, an ambient temperature increase a negative impact on it and the level of productivity of dairy cows decreased.
It has been established that such a technological factor as an increase of the ambient temperature above the comfort, negatively affects both the milk and meat productivity of animals, and the means of protection against the influence of this temperature factor should be the creation of the comfortable conditionsof animals.
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