Keywords: horse, Orlov Trotter, stallions, speed, measurements, selection, genealogical structure
The Orlov Trotter breed is one of the oldest breeds in the world. A significant part of the animals has been bred in stud farms of Ukraine and is one of the most popular horse breeds. A long period of breeding improvement requires exclusively purebred method and careful assessment of the modern breeding stock, in particular, breeding stallions. Additionally, the breeding process takes into account modern requirements of prize sports.
Studies were conducted on all stallions kept by breeding facilities and private owners. Quantitative indicators of the breed have been established, which are: the total number of 465, including breeding mares of reproductive age – 221 and 31 stallions approved for breeding use.
Stallions were evaluated for record speed at a distance of 1600 m and basic torso measurements (height at the withers, oblique torso length, chest circumference, metacarpal circumference).
It was found that 80.8% of Ukrainian stallions are characterized by a high level of alertness (class of alertness 2.10 min and faster), on average, the rate of alertness of stallions is 2.07,8±0.07 min. The coefficient of variability of the trait (CV) is 4.63. According to the main body measurements, stallions of the Orlov Trotter predominate stallions selected by the originator country.
According to absolute records for classical distances in age groups, stallions of the Orlov Trotter are inferior to stallions of the originator country for almost all classical distances in all age groups (except the records of the Korifej 2.03,5 (3-year-old) at a distance of 1600 m and Shpinat 6.59,8 (4-year-old) at a distance of 4800 m). At the same time, over the past decade, 7 absolute records have been updated, including one CIS record.
Sufficient branching of stallions along genealogical lines (8 genealogical lines) was established for purebred breeding and avoiding inbred depression in conditions of a limited gene pool. Stallions of Pion genealogical lines (2.05,1 min) are characterized by indicators of the highest speed at a distance of 1600 m) and the Pilot (2.05,2 min), the most desirable indicators of torso measurements are inherent in stallions of the Voin, Barchuk-Zapad, Pilot and other lines. All stallions come from valuable families.
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