Keywords: Chelidonium majus, extracts, antimicrobial activity, Staphylo-coccus aureus strains, Escherichia coli strains, disk diffusion method
A convincing number of studies indicate that chelidonine and sanguinarine together with other secondary metabolites exhibit potent antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic properties. This prompted us to examine the antimicrobial efficacy of greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.), a representative of the Papaveraceae family collected from the northern part of Poland, against Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Rosenbach (ATCC®29213™) and S. aureus NCTC 12493 as well as Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC®25922™) and Escherichia coli (Migula) Castellani and Chalmers (ATCC®35218™). Taking into account the above considerations and based on previous results obtained in our laboratory, in the present work we decided to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of ethanolic extracts derived from stems and roots of C. majus against different types of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains. Fresh collected stalks and roots were washed, weighed, crushed, and homogenized in 96 % ethanol (in proportion 1:19) at room temperature. The extracts were then filtered and investigated for their antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity was determined using the agar disk diffusion assay. The antimicrobial activity of extracts derived from stems of C. majus was highest against Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Rosenbach (ATCC®29213™) and S. aureus NCTC 12493 strains. Since the antimicrobial efficacy of medicinal plants varies according to the accumulation of secondary metabolites (i.e. alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, etc.), it is not surprising that differences in this efficacy have been noted even using samples taken from the same plant but from different parts of the plant (stalks, roots). The antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic extracts obtained from stems and roots of greater celandine can be attributed to specific compounds or a combination of compounds. The present study lays the foundation for future research to confirm the potential use of C. majus as a candidate for the treatment of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in human and veterinary medicine.
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