DOI: 10.32900/2312-8402-2023-130-203-215

Savchuk Ivan,
Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Researcher,,
Kovalova Svitlana,
Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Senior Researcher,Х,
Polissia Institute of Agriculture, National Academy of Sciences,
Zhytomyr, Ukraine

Keywords: pigs, 137Cs, Pb, Cd, Cu. GM soy, the longest back muscle, liver

Experimental studies on young pigs of the large white breed were conducted on the territory of the physiological yard of the Polissia Institute of Agriculture of the National Academy of Sciences (III zone of radioactive contamination due to the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant). To conduct the experiment, 2 groups of experimental animals were formed: Group I (control) was fed with grain mixture  1 with narrow-leaved lupine (alkaloid-free) and sunflower cake; II group (experimental) received grain mixture  2 with genetically modified soy. Experimental pigs were kept in one room according to the accepted technology in group cages equipped with a wooden floor. The mode of feeding and drinking, parameters of the microclimate in both groups were the same.

According to the results of tests conducted at the Ukrainian Laboratory of Quality and Safety of Agricultural Products, it was established that soybeans contain genetically modified deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), have the target sequence of the 35S+FMV promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus and the NOS terminator (nopaline synthase) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

The specific activity of 137Cs in the longest back muscle of pigs varied by group within 3.7-10.3 Bq/kg and did not exceed permissible levels (DR-2006 = 200 Bq/kg). When used as part of the GM soybean grain mixture, the concentration of radiocesium in the muscle tissue of animals of the II (experimental) group relative to the control decreased by 6.6 Bq/kg, or by 64.1% with a statistically significant difference (Р> 0.95). Moreover, the accumulation rate of 137Cs in the longest back muscle of piglets was 0.46-0.95 and was 2.1 times higher in young pigs that received grain mixture No. 1 without GM soybeans, compared to the use of grain mixture No. 2.

The concentration of Pb in the slaughter products of experimental animals was significantly lower than the MPC, while the level of contamination of the longest back muscle of pigs Cd exceeded the regulatory requirements by 1.40-1.44 times. The introduction of 60% (by mass) of corn gain and 10% of GM soybeans into the grain mixture instead of the same amount of wheat grain, lupine and sunflower cake for fattening young pigs in the III zone of radioactive pollution contributes to a smaller accumulation of heavy metals in meat: Pb – by 17.5%, Cd – by 2.8%, Cu – by 4.2%. Therefore, the transition coefficients of Pb and Cd into the muscle tissue of animals of the II (experimental) group relative to the analogues of the I (control) group increased by 1.24% and 3.02% respectively, and Cu decreased by 0.23%.


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